気候変動時代における「人間」を問う:人新世と人間科学

人間科学サミットin OSAKA|「人間科学を知ろう」

 2022年 大阪大学人間科学部創立50周年

  • オーガナイザー:モハーチ ゲルゲイ(大阪大学人間科学研究科)
  • 日時:2022年12月3日(土曜)13:15~15:15
  • 場所:大阪市中央公会堂、1F 大集会室
  • キーワード:人新世、草の根の社会運動、気候変動、レジリエンス、環境人間科学

概要:可能な世界を目指す草の根の社会運動の関係に焦点を当てて、〈惑星的なもの〉と〈人間的なもの〉の間の変化する関係を探ることを試みる。地球そのものが人間の生息環境となるという歴史的な変革を概説してから、気候変動にともなう社会生態系の崩壊と再生の事例を踏まえて、大阪大学オムニサイト(OOS)プロジェクトとして活躍する「工藝の森」という取り組みについて紹介する。最後のラウンドテーブルでは、オーガナイザーと発表者5名が、気候変動時代における人間科学の課題と可能性について討論を行う。

【メッセージ】

「環境問題は若者が関心を持っているテーマだと私は思います。環境汚染、生物多様性、気候変動なら工学や自然科学を学ぶということを考える学生のみなさんには、人間科学も視野に入れてほしい。人間科学においても、環境や生態系に対する意識は近年の研究動向として無視できないものになっています。今回のシンポジウムはこのような研究動向を紹介しますので、環境問題に興味を持つみなさんにぜひ来ていただきたいと思います。」(モハーチ ゲルゲイ)

【プログラム】

13:15~13:30 挨拶・趣旨説明(※日本語)

モハーチ ゲルゲイ(大阪大学人間科学研究科・准教授)

13:30~13:55 話題提供① 思想としての地球|Planetary Visions(※English)

Anders Blok (U of Copenhagen, Dept of Sociology, Associate Professor)

13:55~14:20 話題提供② ローカルな実験|Local Experiments(※日本語)

ケミクスィズ アスル(大阪大学人間科学研究科・特任研究員)

14:20~14:45 事例紹介③ 物質と循環型社会|Material Flows(※日本語)

高室 幸子(一般社団法人パースペクティブ 共同代表)

森田 敦郎(大阪大学人間科学研究科・教授)  

14:45~15:15 討論 気候変動時代における人間科学の課題と可能性(※日本語&English)

I 思想としての地球|Planetary Visions

Eventful Anthropocene: On contingent temporalities of urban-ecological activism in times of climate change

Anders Blok (U of Copenhagen, Dept of Sociology, Associate Professor

ABSTRACT: The notion of the Anthropocene has given rise to widely divergent interpretations and responses in socio-cultural theory. In this paper, I develop the notion of an ‘eventful’ Anthropocene, broadly following how philosopher Isabelle Stengers has presented Gaia, a figure capturing today’s planetary ecological crises, as an event in collective historicity. I develop my argument in three steps. First, drawing on work with Casper Bruun Jensen, I contrast Stengers’ approach, informed by science and technology studies (STS), to the rather more ‘event-less’ approaches to rethinking nature-culture relations found in so-called new materialism and eco-Marxism, respectively. Second, I expand on the notion of ‘the eventful’, by invoking how historian and social theorist William H. Sewell Jr. conceptualize temporality as contingent, complicated and heterogenous, and as unfolding at the intersection of multiple processes, relations and causalities. Third, I illustrate some implications of an eventful approach to the Anthropocene by drawing on a collaborate case study into urban-ecological activism in Copenhagen, Denmark, working to unearth or ‘daylight’ a nowadays channelized waterbody flowing underneath the city. Centrally at stake in this activist endeavour, I suggest, are a series of temporalities likely characteristic of Anthropocene sensibilities, coming together in efforts to recast pasts and futures beyond urban-modernist commitments. Paying attention to such Anthropocene temporalities, I conclude, provides one situated illustration of the wider learning process in which socio-cultural analysis and theory finds itself vis-à-vis the Anthropocene – one in which, as Stengers says, theoretical certainties must be put at risk anew.

Ⅱ ローカルな実験|Local Experiments

An Island Community in Crisis: The breakdown of the “local”

Asli Kemiksiz (Osaka University, Dept of Anthropology, Research Associate) 

ケミクスィズ アスル(大阪大学人間科学研究科・特任研究員)

ABSTRACT: This talk focuses on a case study of a small island in Turkey, after the simultaneous crises of environmental destruction and the Covid-19 pandemic. The Sea of Marmara is an inland sea in the Northwest of Turkey. It is connected to both the Black Sea and the Aegean (thus Mediterranean), making it an important international sea route. Due to decades of pollution, environmental damage, and sea temperatures rising, the sea had been affected by a “sea snot” or “marine mucilage” bloom of historic proportions in the summer of 2021. The marine mucilage bloom lasted for months, affecting large swathes of sea and even neighboring seas, finally sinking to the sea floor. The impact of the disaster was multifaceted, the environmental damage being the worst. But the region was also already suffering from multiple other crises including the global pandemic, which impacted the lives and livelihoods of the people immensely. So in this talk, I will introduce a tiny island called Ekinlik, which has gone through drastic changes in the last few years due to droughts, economic instability, infrastructural change, pandemic, and so on. What can we learn about the vulnerabilities of the local in face of multiple entangled anthropogenic crises? Is the breakdown of an island community just a case, or a scale model for a planetary crisis scenario? 

Ⅲ 物質と循環型社会|Material Flows

人新世の環境変化と草の根のインフラストラクチャー

森田敦郎(大阪大学人間科学研究科・教授)& 高室幸子(一般社団法人パースペクティブ 共同代表)

概要:人新世の環境変化は、主に生産活動とそれにまつわるエネルギー、輸送、廃棄などのインフラストラクチャーからもたらされている。ネットワーク状に広がるコンクリートの空間であるインフラは、自然環境を大きく改変している。モノづくり、インフラ、環境の関係を再構築し、現在の環境破壊の趨勢を逆転することは可能なのだろうか?この発表では、一般社団法人パースペクティブの「工藝の森」の取組を通して、「つくること」と環境の関係を草の根から変えていく可能性について考える。

STS Across Borders (4S 2018, Sydney)

STS Across Borders (4S 2018, Sydney)

This year’s second overseas conference was held in Sydney at a new and fancy conference centre in Darling Harbour. With some of my Japanese colleagues, we have created a digital essay on the “Anthropologies of Science and Technology in Japan,” which was part of the new exhibition called STS Across Borders. The best for the genre is probably “experimental.” Not only we, even the organizers did not know how it was going to be. It was fun though and we hope to continue tinkering with this text-like-archive-of-genealogies. 

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More Vital Experiments (IUAES 2018, Florianópolis)

More Vital Experiments (IUAES 2018, Florianópolis)

This year I go to two international conferences during the summer. Both conferences are in the southern hemisphere, so they’re a sort of escape from the summer heat in Japan. In July, I organized a session at the IUAES (International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences) conference in Florianópolis, Brasil with two colleagues from Japan and Italy. It is a follow-up of the workshop we held in Kyoto University this February with many new presenters and topics, but still mostly an attempt to explore posthuman ways of life and especially the role of pharmaceuticals in shaping it.

Vital Experiments: Living (and Dying) with Pharmaceuticals after the Human (IUAES 2018, Florianópolis)

Time: July 17 2018, 10:00-15:30
Place: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC)
Organisers: Akinori Hamada, Gergely Mohácsi and Pino Schirripa
Participants: Lauren Murillo Predebon, Takeshi Matsushima, Junko Iida, Yosuke Shimazono, Akinori Hamada, Pino Schirripa and Gergely Mohácsi

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Vital Experiments (Kyoto University)

This workshop is part of a collaborative research project on the pharmaceutical entanglements of life and its anthropological exploration. Participants will provide their own accounts on this broad topic from herbal medicines in Ghana and India to polypharmacy in Taiwan, and more. We hope to discuss how drugs, pills, herbs and vaccines are instrumental in the shaping of what has come to be called ‘experimental societies’ and how these changes situate many around the world in an extended space between bench and bedside.

VITAL EXPERIMENTS: Living (and Dying) with Pharmaceuticals after the Human

Time: February 24-25, 2018
Place: Kyoto University, Inamori Hall, Medium Conference Room
Organiser: Mohácsi Gergely, Hamada Akinori, Nishi Makoto

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The 8th Kyosei Studies Colloquium (Osaka University)

We organised this colloquium with my colleague at Osaka University Kimura Yumi to finally bring in nonhumans into the ongoing conversations about kyosei. Might be too early (or too late?), but he work of Scott Simon from Ottawa University and Kosaka Yasuyuki from Kyoto University will for sure have many interesting interferences and hopefully some of our anthropocentric friends will bring something home from the event. 

MULTISPECIES MEETS KYOSEI: Plants, Birds and People

Time: Thursday, January 25, 2018, 17:00-19:00
Place: Osaka University, School of Human Sciences, Learning Commons Room
Organiser: Mohácsi Gergely, Kimura Yumi

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From the Microscopic to the Global: Scaling in Medical Science and Technology (IUAES 2015)

First attempt with materials from Vietnam…

Session at the 2015 IUAES Inter-Congress @ Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand

Time: Wednesday, July 15, 2015: 15:15 – 16:45
Place: Thammasat University, The Faculty of Sociology and Anthropology, Room 221
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ABSTRACT: Medical sciences, technologies and policies operate on different qualitative and quantitative scales. To be able to claim, for example, that a virus is a global health concern requires disjunction, commensuration and boundary making on multiple levels and in multiple locations. How such diverse objects hang together, then, is an open ethnographic question that calls for open anthropological answers. Through their focus on ‘scaling,’ the papers of this panel will attend to the mediation between different ontological realms and will argue that such mediation itself is generative of scale. Scientific, political and cultural claims about size, volume, difference and value emerge through their connections with daily practices of scaling, such as culturing cells in a biology lab, comparing medicinal herbs, or measuring a child’s growth. Scale-making in this sense plays a central role in understanding the dynamic interplay and crossover between laboratory, clinical and public health settings. The central questions that orientate this panel are: How do we as researchers engage simultaneously ­with different qualitative and quantitative scales? and what boundaries and concepts are drawn up or contested in doing so? Building on recent work in anthropology and science studies, we also hope to bring new insights to the discussion about ontological multiplicity. The ethnographically grounded accounts here point to the coexistence of different realities—indigenous, embodied, scientific, etc.—and the tensions between them by showing how multiplicity becomes a matter of scaling in the day-­to­-day practices of medical innovation and intervention from the microscopic to the global. Some papers will highlight how different medical disciplines and conceptual boundaries are realised and contested; others will trace the work of translation across cells, bodies and populations. This attention to the devices and material practices of scaling has the potential to further problematise the division between macro and micro levels of analysis in social research and to offer alternative perspectives to seemingly irresistible categories of globalisation, community, society and nature, among others. Such categories are understood to be no longer singular, but conceptualised and enacted in multiple ways. Furthermore, they are located on continuums rather than as discrete categories.

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